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BlogHow many flicks per frame?Wednesday, January 24 2018

Facebook’s Oculus division have defined a new unit of time says BBC News:

The flick has been designed to help developers keep video effects in sync, according to a description on the code-sharing site GitHub.

A flick, derived from “frame-tick”, is 1/705,600,000 of a second – the next unit of time after a nanosecond.

A researcher at Oxford University said the flick wouldn’t have much general impact but may help create better virtual reality experiences.

Although most people are now aiming making VR hardware that refreshes its display 90 times a second, video is available at many different frame rates. It is hard to make sure all the frame updates happen at the same time and at the right time. The small monitors inside a head-mounted display must update more often than the frame rate of the source video in order for the video to follow the speed of normal head movement. The flat frames of video being sent to the viewer’s eyes are excerpts from a larger sphere of video.

If you have spherical footage that is designed to update every 59.94th of a second on a VR headset that is being refreshed 90 times a second, the mathematics gets complicated, and errors can creep into the tens of thousands of calculations that must be done during a VR experience. This is partially because true frame rates cannot be completely captured using multiple decimal place values. The frame rate for US TV is described as 29.97 frames per second for example. The true definition of this frame rate is a division calculation: 30÷100.1×100 = 29.970029970029970029970029970029970029970029970029 and on into uncountable infinity.

The flick trick is tom come up with a small enough unit of time that goes into all common video frame rates and refresh rates without any decimal places left over. This makes the calculations much simpler. Adding and subtracting is faster than dividing. It is also more accurate – as the duration of each video frame or VR refresh update can defined as a whole number of flicks.

Here is a table of how many flicks correspond to popular video frame rates. Final Cut Pro can edit audio clips and keyframes at ‘subframe’ resolution which is 1/80th of the project frame rate.

Flicks per


1 frame
in seconds

per frame

flicks per
fcpx subframe

US Film for TV








Worldwide TV
















VR headset refresh




PS: The highest commonly used ‘frame rate’ is that used in high-end audio: 192KHz which defines samples of audio at 192,000 fps – which is 3,675 flicks per sample.

PPS: The Facebook conversation that prompted the creation of flicks.

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BlogApple Final Cut Pro 10.4: 360º spherical video, colour, video HDR and moreThursday, December 14 2017

Today’s Final Cut Pro X update adds features for both high-end professionals, those new to editing and everyone in between.

  • Professionals can now stay in Final Cut for advanced colour correction and advanced media workflows.
  • Everyone can explore 360° spherical video production – from those who have recently purchased consumer 360° cameras up to teams working on the most advanced VR video productions.
  • 10.4 includes the ability to open iMovie for iOS projects for people who want move from free editing tools to a full video, TV and film production application.

Apple has also updated Motion, their real-time motion graphics application, to version 5.3. Compressor, their video encoding and packaging application, has been updated to version 4.4.

All updates are free for existing users, and prices for new users remain the same from the Mac App Store: $299.99 for Final Cut Pro and $49.99 for both Motion and Compressor. Apple have yet to introduce subscription pricing on their professional video applications. Those who bought them from the Mac App Store in 2011 have not had to pay for any updates over the last six years.

The hardware requirements to run Apple’s professional video application remain the same, but a few features depend on them running on macOS 10.13 High Sierra: HEVC and HEIF support and attaching a VR headset. If you don’t yet need these features, Final Cut Pro, Motion and Compressor will run on macOS 10.12.4 or later.

After I cover the new 360° spherical video features, I’ll give a rundown of the rest of the 10.4 update.

360° spherical video

There is a large range of audiences for 360° spherical video:

  • The majority use phones looking at Facebook and YouTube videos to use a ‘magic window’ to turn around inside 360° – as they move the phone around in 3D space. The video displaying on the screen updates to match their position, giving the feeling of being ‘inside’ the video.
  • Those that have bought devices worn on the head that cradle phones in front of their eyes as they look around (from less than $30).
  • People with VR headsets ($200-$2000).
  • Groups of people in rooms with devices that project the video on the inside of a dome.

The rest of this section is a much shorter version of my Final Cut Pro & 360° spherical video: All you need to know page.

Final Cut Pro 10.4 can handle spherical video with ease. It recognises footage captured by 360° cameras and spherical rigs. You can create spherical video timelines to edit 360° footage. There’s a 360° Viewer in the Final Cut interface that can be shown next to the normal view that lets you get a feel of what your audience will see when they explore the sphere of video.

To look around inside the video sphere, drag in the 360° Viewer.

VR headset support

On faster Macs running macOS High Sierra you can install the Steam VR software and attach an HTC Vive VR headset to use it to watch the video play straight from the Final Cut Pro 10.4 and Motion 5.4 timelines. Apple’s technical support document on the subject: Use a VR headset with Final Cut Pro X and Motion.

Spherical video now a peer to rectilinear video

It has been possible to work with 360° spherical video in video applications before. As they are designed to work with video in rectangles – rectilinear video – it was necessary to ‘fool’ them into working with the spheres of video that are at the core of 360° editing. This was done with specialised 360° plugins, which were applied as effects and transitions to footage in rectilinear video timelines. Although the user knew that the rectilinear footage represented spheres of video, the editing and motion graphics applications had no idea.

Apple have made spherical video a true peer of rectilinear video in Final Cut Pro 10.4 and Motion 5.4. If applications understand the nature of spherical video, existing features can be improved to do the right thing for 360° production, and new features can be added that benefit both rectilinear and spherical production.

‘Reorient’ orientation

Media that represents spheres of video has ‘reorientation’ properties. This is useful when you want to choose which part of the sphere is is visible if the viewer is looking straight forward. When people start watching, playback starts with then facing forward. After initially looking around when the story starts, even though viewers can look anywhere in the sphere, most will spend the majority of the time looking forward, turning maybe 60° to the left or the right depending on video and audio cues.

In 10.4 you can show a Horizon overlay which marks what is straight ahead, with tick marks to show what is 90° to the left and 90° to the right (the left and right edges of the rectangular viewer define what is seen if the viewer turns 180° from the front.

There is a new Reorient transform tool for changing spherical video orientation by dragging in the viewer.

The 360° Viewer shows what is straight ahead when viewed online or in a spherical video device. Here the Reorient tool is being used to make the London bus appear straight ahead (X:0°, Y:0°, Z:0°):

This means that if the viewer is looking ahead when this shot starts, they’ll see the London bus.

Final Cut Pro 10.4 doesn’t yet convert footage from 360° cameras and rigs into spherical videos. Apple expects that editors will use the specialised software that comes with cameras to do this work – which is known as ‘stitching.’ If footage needs more advanced work done on it (such as motion tracking to steady a shaky shot and removing objects from spherical scenes), that will need to be done in applications such as Mocha VR.

Flat media inside a 3D sphere of video

Final Cut recognises spherical media and knows how it should work in a spherical timeline. It also recognises flat media, and knows what to do with it in a spherical timeline. In traditional rectilinear projects, each piece of media has X and Y position properties. This allows editors to position footage and pictures in the frame.

When flat (non-360°) media is added to a 360° spherical video project, instead of having X position, Y position and Scale properties in the ‘Transform’ panel of the clip inspector, there is an additional panel in the clip inspector: 360° Transform. This panel has properties that allow editors to position the flat media anywhere inside the video sphere. This can be defined in Spherical coordinates – two angles plus distance, or Cartesian coordinates – X, Y and Z co-ordinates (where the centre of the sphere is [0,0,0]).

Auto Orient makes sure the flat media always faces the viewer. X, Y, and Z Rotation is applied to the media after is positioned using Spherical or Cartesian co-ordinates

360° effects – Modify whole sphere

Final Cut Pro 10.4 comes with 10 360°-specific plugins. Nine of them are used to apply a graphic effect to a whole sphere of video. Here they are in the effects browser:

360° effect: 360° Patch

There is another plugin that can be used to hide parts of the sphere of video, which is useful when you need to hide the equipment (or person) that is holding the 360° camera.

In this case of this shot, I am visible to those who look straight down, because I held the camera on the end of a pole above my head. The 360°

The result is that the whole sphere looks like this:

360° titles and generators

10.4 includes a set of titles designed for 360° – they display and animate 3D text on and off:

10.4 comes with two 360° generators:

Apple’s 360° spherical video do list

The Final Cut Pro 10.4 update is probably only first part of Apple’s 360° spherical video plan. The way they have started is designed to accommodate many future updates. I expect that the video applications team still have a long to do list:

A tough list, but Apple are best positioned of anyone to be able to deliver these features to all Final Cut Pro users. The Apple video applications team can also bring 360° spherical video to millions of people through their other applications working on Apple hardware of all kinds: iMovie for macOS, iMovie for iOS, Clips for iOS and Memories for Photos.

Not only 360° spherical video

Here is a summary of the other features in the Final Cut Pro 10.4 update – with links to the new help system on these topics:

Advanced colour correction

Choose which part of the footage to base a white balance on. A new option in the Color Balance effect (Option-Command-B). Apple help topic on manual white balance.

New grading tools such as colour wheels, colour curves plus hue and saturation curves. Color Correction Overview.

New built-in camera LUTs (including support for the December 2017 RED Workflow update and software from Canon) and support for loading more camera LUTs. You can also control where in the pipeline LUTs are applied using the new Custom LUT effect. See Color Lookup Tables.

TIP: Important note pointed out by Gabriel Spaulding: Libraries do not carry LUTs that are applied using the new LUT features, so if are sharing with other editors and you use these new features, make sure you manage the LUTs to prevent seeing this message:

All colour corrections can now be animated using keyframes.

HDR video

High-dynamic-range video allows the range of brightness levels in footage, projects and exports to be much larger. This means much more detail in brighter parts of the image. Wide Color Gamut and HDR Overview and Configure library and project settings for wide gamut HDR.

There is a new button in the library inspector.

Once clicked you can set your library to be able to support media and projects with wide gamut HDR.

As well as being able to HDR properties for footage, projects and libraries, there is a new HDR Tools effect to support standards conversion. 10.4 can also generate HDR master files.

For a detailed article by someone much more expert than me on the subject of the new colour tools and HDR, read Marc Bach’s blog post.

iMovie for iOS projects

Any projects started on iMovie for iOS on an iPhone or iPad can be sent directly to Final Cut Pro 10.4 for finishing. Very useful for the many professional journalists who prepare reports on their mobile devices. See Import from iMovie for iOS.

Additional video and still image formats

If 10.4 is running on macOS 10.13 High Sierra:

  • HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding), also known as H.265, a video compression standard
  • HEIF (High Efficiency Image File Format), a file format for still images and image sequences
  • RF64, an extension to the WAV file format that allows for files larger than 4 GB


Final Cut Pro 10.4 libraries can be stored on connected NFS devices as if they were on local drives.

Retiming speed

Optical flow generation of new frames is now much faster as it has been rewritten to use Metal.

Improved Logic audio plugin UIs

The UIs have been redesigned and also been made resizable (using a 50%/75%/100% pop-up menu).




The Final Cut Pro X Logic Effects Reference site has been updated to provide help on the redesigned audio plugins.

Notes for Final Cut users

Upgrading to Final Cut Pro 10.4

As this is a major update to Final Cut, the Library format has been updated to work with the new features. Apple advises that before you install the update from the Mac App Store, you should backup your current version of Final Cut and existing libraries.

Before you update, check to see if you need to update your version of macOS. Final Cut will no longer run on macOS 10.11, but will still run on macOS 10.12.4. Apple’s detailed Final Cut Pro technical requirements.

Bits and pieces

New in Preferences: In the Editing panel, you can choose which is the default colour correction that is applied when you click the Color Inspector icon in the inspector, or press Command-6.

In the Playback panel, you can Show HDR as raw values and If frames are dropped one the VR headset, warn after playback

TIP: Control-click a clip in the browser to create a new project based on its dimensions and frame rate.

TIP: It is useful to be able to line up elements of waveforms when colour grading. To add a horizontal guide, click once anywhere in the waveform monitor.

Commands with unassigned keyboard shortcuts:

  • Add Color Board Effect
  • Add Color Curves Effect
  • Add Color Hue/Saturation Effect
  • Add Color Wheels Effect
  • Color Correction: Go to the Next Pane
  • Color Correction: Go to the Previous Pane
  • Toggle Color Correction Effects on/off

New commands:

  • Select Previous Clip – Command-Left Arrow
  • Select Next Clip – Command-Right Arrow
  • Extend Selection to Previous Clip – Control-Command-Left Arrow
  • Extend Selection to Next Clip – Control-Command-Left Arrow

For new keyboard commands associated with 360° spherical video, visit my Final Cut Pro & 360° spherical video: All you need to know page.

360º features review: ‘Version 1.0’

Apple ‘went back to 1.0’ with Final Cut Pro X in 2011. They didn’t push Final Cut Pro 7’s 1990s software core to breaking point to accommodate new digital workflows. They imaged what kind of editing application they would make if they weren’t limited by the ideas of the past. One result was that Final Cut Pro 10.0 was based around GPU rendering and multiple-core CPU processing. The kind of processing that 360° spherical video production needs.

Getting established postproduction tools to do 360° via plugins is they way people without access to the core of applications had to do it. It is a stopgap that application users will eventually want leave behind. Apple didn’t add 360° via plugins to Final Cut in a ‘do it the legacy way.’ They jumped to ‘Version 1.0’ of 360° spherical video. They answered this question: “As you have control over Final Cut Pro, how should you design 360° into its core?”

Following the Final Cut Pro 10.4 update, the Apple Video Applications team are now well placed to develop more of their products and services to support many more people who want to tell stories through 360° spherical video. For years now Final Cut Pro has been powerful enough to work on the biggest shows, yet friendly enough for the millions of people who know iMovie to make a small step towards professional production. With 10.4, that applies to 360° spherical video too. I’m looking forward to experience the stories they tell.

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BlogNew iMac Pro – How much better at 360º spherical video stitching?Tuesday, December 12 2017

Vincent Laforet is another influencer who has has access to an iMac Pro for the last week. His blog post includes speed tests for Final Cut Pro X, DaVinci Resolve, Adobe Lightroom, RED Cine-X and Adobe Premiere. He also test to see how fast the new iMac Pro was at stitching the multiple sensor media recorded using an Insta360 Pro to a 6K stereo sphere. He compared it with his 2016 5K iMac and his recent 2017 MacBook Pro:

I processed 6K Stereo (3D) VR Insta360 PRO footage through their Insta360 Stitcher software, a 56 second clip, here were the export / processing times:

iMacPRO – 5 minutes 55 seconds

iMac – 11 minutes 09 seconds

MacBookPro 15” – 32 minutes

Read more about the computer and other results on his blog.

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BlogVideo preview of iMac Pro from MKBHD – Marques BrownleeTuesday, December 12 2017

Just as with the iPhone X, it looks like Apple are giving online influencers early access to new products and giving them permission to share their impressions before release. Marques Brownlee – known as MKBHD on the internet – has posted a video on the forthcoming iMac Pro. His 5.4 million subscribers are now finding out about the new Mac from Apple.

He mentions that this video was editing on the new iMac Pro in the next version on Final Cut Pro X, 10.4.

The model he’s be working with for a week is the Intel Xeon W 3GHz 10-core iMac Pro with 128GB of RAM, Radeon Pro Vega 64 GPU with 16GB of RAM and 2TB storage – the ‘middle’ iMac Pro in the range.

  • The physical dimensions exactly match today’s 2017 5K iMac.
  • No access to upgrading the RAM
  • Two more Thunderbolt 3 ports (for a total of 4)
  • 10 Gigabit Ethernet
  • Geekbench iMac Pro single core: 5,468 (vs. 5,571 for 2017 iMac and 3,636 for 2013 Mac Pro)
  • Geekbench iMac Pro multi-core: 37,417 (vs. 19,667 for 2017 iMac and 26,092 for 2013 Mac Pro)
  • Storage speed: 3,000MB/s read and write
  • Fan rarely spins up and keeps cool to the touch, despite high-end workstation components
  • 8- and 10-core editions available first, you’ll have to wait longer if your order an 18-core.
  • “The ideal high-end YouTuber machine”

Looks like applications that take advantage of multiple CPU cores are going to see a big difference on the iMac Pro.

Apple have announced that the orders for the new iMac Pro will start on Thursday.

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BlogSoon: More audio timelines that can automatically be modified to match changes in video timelinesWednesday, December 6 2017

In many video editing workflows, assistant have the thankless task of making special versions of timelines that generate files for others in postproduction. A special timeline for VFX people. A special timeline for colour. A special timeline for exporting for broadcast. A special timeline for audio. Transferring timelines to other departments is called ‘doing turnovers.’

Final Cut Pro X is the professional video editing application that automates the most turnovers. It seems that Apple want to stop the need for special timelines to be created. Special timelines that can go out of sync if the main picture edit changes. Final Cut video and audio roles mean that turnovers for broadcast no longer require special timelines.

The Vordio application aims to make the manual audio reconform process go away. At the moment problems arise when video timelines change once the audio team start work one their version of the timeline. Sound editors, designers and mixers can do a great deal of work on a film and then be told that there have been changes to the picture edit.

What’s new? What’s moved? What has been deleted?

Vordio offers audio autoreconform. That’s if (when) the picture timeline changes Vordio looks at the NLE-made changes and produces a change list that can be applied to the audio timeline in the DAW. It currently does this with Final Cut Pro X and Adobe Premiere timelines. If the sound team have already made changes in Reaper (a popular alternative to ProTools) and they need to know what changes have since been made to the video edit, Vordio can make changes to the audio timeline that reflect the new video edit. This includes labelling new clips, clips that have moved and showing which clips have been deleted.

It looks like Vordio will soon work with other DAWs by using the Hammerspoon UI scripting toolkit.

StudioOne is a useful DAW that has a free version.

I expect timeline autoreconform come to all timelines. To get a preview of what it could be like, check out Vordio.

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BlogFilm from a single point, then wander around inside a cloud of pixels in 3DMonday, December 4 2017

People wearing 360° spherical video headsets will get a feeling of presence when the small subconscious movements they make are reflected in what they say. This is the first aim of Six Degrees of Freedom video (6DoF). The scene changes as the viewer turns in three axes and moves in three axes. 6DoF video is stored as a sphere of pixels and a channel of information that defines how far each of those pixels are from the camera.

Josh Gladstone has been experimenting with creating point clouds of pixels. His 4th video in a series about working on a sphere of pixels plus depth shows him wondering around a 3D environment that was captured by filming from a single point.

The scenes he uses in his series were filmed on an GoPro Odyssey camera. The footage recorded by its 16 sensors was then processed by the Google Jump online service to produce a sphere of pixels plus a depth map.

The pixels that are closest to the camera have the brighter corresponding pixels in the depth map.

360° spherical video point clouds are made up of a sphere of pixels whose distance from the centre point have been modified based on a depth map.

Josh has written scripts in Unity – a 3D game development environment – that allow real-time rendering of these point clouds. Real time is important because users will expect VR headsets to be able to render in real time as they turn their heads and move around inside virtual spaces.

You can move around inside this cloud of pixels filmed from a single point:

In the latest video in his series Josh Gladstone simulates how a VR headset can be used to move around inside point clouds generated from information captured by 360° spherical video camera rigs. He also shows how combining multiple point clouds based on video taken from multiple positions could be the basis of recording full 3D environments:

What starts as an experiment in a 3D game engine is destined to be in post production applications like Apple’s Motion 5 and Adobe After Effects, and maybe eventually in NLEs like Final Cut Pro X.

I’m looking forward to playing around inside point clouds.

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